Nigeria @60: Waiwaye kan tarihin Fulani a Najeriya | BBC Hausa

Wannan maƙala ce ta musamman da BBC ta rubuta albarkacin murnar cikar Najeriya shekara 60 da samun ƴancin kai daga Turawan Mulkin Mallaka na Burtaniya.

Za mu kawo tarihi na manyan ƙabilun ƙasar huɗu da suka haɗa da Hausawa da Yarabawa da Igbo kuma Fulani cikin kwana huɗu a jere.

Bayanan hoto,
Akwai Fulani kusan miliyan 45 a duniya

A ci gaba da kawo muku tarihin manyan kabilun Najeriya albarkacin cikar kasar shekara 60 da samun ‘yancin kai, yau za mu yi duba kan kabilar Fulani, wadda daya ce daga cikin manyan Kabilu mafi yawan jama’a a Najeriya.

Tushen Fulani

Fulani dai kabila ce da tarihi ke turke asalinta tun ƙarni na 15 daga wasu manyan yankuna biyu da ke kasashen Senegal da kuma Guinea Conakry, wato Futa Toro da kuma Futa Jalloh.

Daga nan ne suka ci gaba da bazuwa cikin kasashen duniya musamman yammaci da kuma tsakiyar nahiyar Afirka domin nema wa dabbobinsu abinci da kuma ingantacciyar rayuwa.

Ko da yake babu tsayayyen adadi na yawan Fulani a duniya, amma kiyasi na nuna yawansu ya kai akalla miliyan 45, kuma sun fi yawa ne a kasashen yammacin nahiyar Afirka.

Dakta Ahmad Shehu masanin tarihin Fulani kuma malami a sashen nazarin harsuna da ke Jami’ar Bayero ta Kano ya ce, “baya ga yammacin Afirka, Fulani na nan a kasashe da dama na nahiyar musamman tsakiyarta”.

Wata dabi’a da aka san Fulani da ita ita ce yawo da dabbobi daga wata kasa zuwa wata, kuma wannan ne dalilin da ya sa ake samun su a kasashe da dama musamman a nahiyar Afirka.

Dakta Ahmad na Jami’ar Bayero ya ce Fulani sunfi yawa a Najeriya sannan suna da yawa a kasashen:

  • Guinea Conakry
  • Guinea Bissau
  • Mali
  • Senegal
  • Gambia
  • Mauritania
  • Kamaru
  • Niger
  • Sudan
  • Saliyo
  • Burkina Faso da kuma
  • Chadi.

Jihadin Dan Fodio da masarautun Fulani a Najeriya

Jihadin Shehu Usmanu Bin Fodio ne babban dalilin bazuwar Fulani a Najeriya, inda shehun ya kafa dauloli da kuma masarautun Fulani a arewacin kasar, a cewar Dakta Abubakar Girei, malami a sashen nazarin harshen Fulfulde a kwalejin ilimi ta tarayya da ke Yola.

“Jihadin Shehu Dan Fodio ne ya kafa kusan manyan masarautun da ke arewacin Najeriya inda ya danƙa wa malamai kuma shehunai jagorancin waɗannan yankuna saboda adalcinsu, ba sarakuna ba kamar yadda ake cewa yanzu.

Wannan shi ya sa Fulani suka fi yawa daga cikin wadanda ke riƙe da masarautun”, a cewar Dakta Girei.

“Manyan masarautun Fulani a Najeriya sun haɗa da:

  • Masarautar Fombinah ta Modibbo Adama
  • Masarautar Sokoto
  • Masarautar Kano
  • Masarautar Zazzau
  • Gwandu
  • Katsina
  • Gombe da sarauransu.

Masarautar Modibbo Adama

Bayanan hoto,
Yola na daga cikin jihohin Najeriya da Fulani suke da yawa

Masarautar Modibbo Adama tana daya daga cikin manyan masarautun Fulani a duniya wacce Shehu Usmanu Bin Fodio ya miƙa wa tuta, kuma tarihi ya nuna an kafa ta ne shekara 212 da suka gabata, wato tun shekarar 1808.

Modibbo Adama shi ne sarkin Masarautar Fombinah wato Lamido Fombinah na farko kuma masarautar da ke da fada a Yola ta ratsa yankuna da yawa daga Najeriya har kasar Kamaru.

Zuwa yanzu dai ta samar da sarakuna 12 daga kan Modibbo Adama zuwa Dakta Muhammadu Barkindo Aliyu Mustapha.

A ziyarar da na kai gidan adana kayan tarihin masarautar Modibbo Adama da ke Yola, na samu kayan tarihi daban-daban ajiye. Ciki har da farar tuta ta ainihi da Shehu Usman Bin Fodio ya danƙa wa Modibbo Adama yayin kafa masarautar a shekarar 1808.

Sauran kayan tarihin sun hada da kore da kayan yaƙi na gargajiya kamar sulke da garkuwa da takubba da dai sauransu.

Ƙarin labarai masu alaƙa

Karin Harshen Fulani

Kamar yadda Fulanin ke da masarautu da dama haka ma kuma suke da karin harshe kala-kala wanda masana tarihi suka kasa kashi shida.

Wannan ne ma ya sa ba lallai ne wasu Fulanin Najeriya su fahimci Fulatancin wasu ‘yan uwansu da ke kasashe kamar Senegal da Gambiya ko kuma Burkina Faso ba.

Ko da a Najeriya, akwai wani karin harshe da wasu Fulanin ba su fahimtarsa.

Dakta Abubakar Girei malami a sashen nazarin harshen Fulfulde a kwalejin ilimi ta tarayya da ke Yola ya ce: “Akwai manyan karin harshe na Fulani guda shida ban da ƙanana da ke cikinsu, na farko akwai.

  • Futa Toro
  • Futa Jallohn
  • Masina
  • Sokoto
  • Adamawa
  • Arewa ta tsakiya

Al’adun Fulani da alaƙarsu da shanu

Bayanan hoto,
An san Fulani da kiwon shanu da kuma sayar da nonon shanun

An san kabilar Fulani da manyan al’adu wadanda a yau kabilu da dama ke kwaikwayo.

Babbar al’adar da aka san Bafulatani da ita ita ce kiwon shanu da tumaki da kuma awaki.

Wani abun da mutane da dama za su so su sani shi ne alakar da ke tsakanin Bafulatani da saniya.

A cewar Dakta Ahmad Shehu masanin tarihin Fulani kuma malami a sashen nazarin harsuna da ke Jami’ar Bayero ta Kano ya ce, alakar Bafulatani da saniya alaƙa ce da “tafi ko wacce karfi a al’adar Bafulatani”.

“Nagge woni Pulaaku, Pulaaku woni Nagge” ma’ana kasancewar Bafulatani cikakke shi ne ya mallaki saniya, in ji Dakta Ahmad Shehu.

Dakta Saleh Momaleh masanin al’adun Fulani kuma malami a sashen nazarin harkokin noma a Jami’ar Bayero da ke Kano ya ce wasu manyan al’adun Fulani bayan kiwo sun hada da.

  • Siffar Kunya
  • Karatu
  • Girmama mutane
  • Sharo
  • Hawan Daba
  • Auratayya tsakanin ‘yan uwa

Gudunmawar Fulani ga samun ‘yancin kan Najeriya

Bayanan hoto,
Wani hoto da ke nuna zanen lokacin da Turawan Mulkin Mallak suka shiga ƙasar Yola

A yayin da Najeriya ke bikin cika shekara 60 da samun ‘yancin kai, Fulani na daga cikin manyan ƙabilun da suka taimaka wajen sama wa kasar ‘yanci daga Turawan mulkin mallaka.

Baya ga zaratan sojoji na Fulani da suka yi gwagwarmaya, akwai kuma fitattu da suka taimaka wajen sama wa Najeriya ‘yanci.

Dakta Abubakar Girei na kwalejin ilimi ta tarayya da ke Yola yace: “Tun kafun samun ‘yancin kai akwai jamhuriyya da ke karkashin gudanarwar Fulani wacce ake kira ‘Sokoto caliphate.

”Wannan jamhuriyyar ta taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen sama wa Najeriya ‘yancin kai saboda akwai mutane kamar Sir Ahmadu Bello Sardaunan Sokoto wanda Bafulatani ne kuma jika ga Shehu Usman Bin Fodio, ya yi gwagwarmaya sosai wajen sama wa Najeriya ‘yanci”.

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