Connect with us

Education

Barazanar durkushewar harshe: Abin da ya ci Doma ba zai bar Awai ba, daga Hamza Darazo

Published

on

A fannin ilimin walwalar harshe ko kuma nazarin harshe da al’umma wato ‘sociolinguistics’ akwai abinda ake ce wa ‘Language endangerment’. Shi wannan wani yanayi na hadari ko barazanar durkushewa ( a wani lokaci har mutuwa) ne da harshe (language) kan tsinci kansa a ciki sakamakon ya rasa masu magana da shi, sai ya kasance ya wofinta, ya zamo matacce. Akwai dalilai masu yawa da suke haddasa durkushewar harshe ko mutuwarsa gaba-daya. Zai iya kasancewa dalilin wasu masifu ko bala’o’i (natural disasters) da suka samu al’umma. Ko dalilan yaki da kuma mamayar al’umma da makamantansu.

Saboda dalilai mabambanta, wasu mutane kan ajiye harshensu na uwa su rungumi wani harshen da ya fi nasu tasiri kuma yake da fifiko a cikin al’ummar da suke rayuwa. Dalilin haka sai ya zamo hatta iyaye, wadanda su ne tushe kuma matakin farko na koyo da magana da harshen uwa ga ‘ya’yansu sukan fi amfani da wannan harshen da ya fi tasiri da fifiko wajen sadarwarsu da ‘ya’yan nasu, sabanin harshensu na asali. Da zarar an samu haka, ba shakka sai hanya ko mahadar da ke gadar da harshen uwa ga ‘ya’ya ta katse. A karshe sai ya zamo mutanen da ke amfani da harshen uwarsu ‘yan ƙalilan ne ainun. Daga karshe sai harshen ya shiga wani yanayi mai kama da rashin lafiya, ya fara fuskantar barazanar durkushewa har wata rana ya bata bat, a daina amfani da shi, a neme shi ko kuma masu magana da shi a rasa.

Wani bincike da aka yi shekaru biyu da suka gabata ya nuna harsuna 42 ne suke cikin irin wannan yanayin na yiwuwar mutuwa a kowane lokaci a kasar Indiya. A shekarar 2014, binciken kwararru ya tabbatar da wasu harsuna 25 na duniya da suke cikin tsananin gargarar mutuwa, wasun su ma har sun mutu gaba-daya.

A wani bincike da UNESCO ta fitar, ta bayyana cewa zuwa yanzu mutum daya tal ne aka sani wanda ya iya magana da harshen ‘Apiaka’ da ke ‘Mato Grosso’ a kasar Brazil. Al’ummar sun rungumi harshen ‘Potuguese’ sabanin nasu.

A wasu lokutan kuma akan samu yanayin da za a tarar kalmomin harshe da dama sun bace bat; kamar ba a yi su ba, hakan yana faruwa a sakamakon fifita amfani da kalmomin harshen da ake ganin ya fi tasiri ko fifiko, ba wai don harshen uwa da ake amfani da shi ba shi da wadannan kalmomin ba, sai don kawai ana ganin wancan harshen ya fi fifiko. A dalilin haka sai ka ga mutum yana magana da harshensa na uwa, a lokaci guda kuma yana sakada kalmomin harshen da ya tasirantu da shi. Ko kuma a wasu lokutan ma ya koma amfani da harshen gaba daya. Wannan al’amari ba karamin tauye harshen uwa yake ba. Sannan ya canza masa daraja da matsayi daga hakikar yadda yake a da, da kuma taimakawa wajen mutuwar harshen, ta fuskacin batar da kalmomi da daman gaske. Sai a wayi gari kamar da ma can babu wadannan kalmomin a harshen.

Duba da yadda matasanmu suka riki wasu harsunan duniya, musamman harshen Turanci, suka fifita shi a kan harshenmu na uwa a mu’amalolinsu na rayuwa musamman a birane, in ba a yi hankali ba akwai barazanar yiwuwar tsirar harsashin tauyewar harshenmu Hausa nan gaba.

Bai boyu ga kowa ba, yadda amfani da Turanci ya fi zama abin burgewa da gwarzantaka a tsakanin al’ummarmu musamman matasa . A yau wanda bai iya magana da Turanci ba, to bai san komai ba, ya rasa kima balle a darajta shi a tsakanin mafi yawan mutane. Hausa kuwa, duk iyawarka ba za ka wani burge ba balle ka samu yabo. In ko har ka ja hankalin mutane da harshen Hausa har suka gan ka a matsayin mutum mai daraja mai ilimi, to lallai ka gwanance ka zama fasihin iya magana ta amfani da dabarun sarrafa harshe da zantuttukan hikima ne ko wasu dalilai da aka yarda da su.

Duk da cewa ba lallai kowa ya yarda ba, amma wannan hanyar da muke a kai a yau ta sa na kara tabbatar da cewa har yau ba mu samu ‘yancin da muke ikirarin an ba mu ba shekaru 59 baya, a kaddara ma mun samu ‘yancin mulkin kai, amma fa akwai sauran rina a kaba, saboda har yau din nan, manyan harsunan da muke da su a wannan kasa tamu, babu daya daga cikinsu da ya ‘yantu. Babu daya daga cikin harsunan wanda ake amfani da shi wajen koyarwa a makarantun Gwamnati ko a ma’aikatu da ofisoshi. Haka kuma ba su samu tagomashin a-zo-a-gani ba a manyan jaridu na kasa, ballantana su yi zarra.

Idan abin a yi dubi da ire-iren wadannan wuraren ne, za ma a iya cewa harsunan mutanen kasar nan na uwa duk sun mutu. Idan kuma ba a yi taka-tsantsan ba, abin da ya ci Doma ba zai bar Awai ba.

Ba shakka wannan lamarin yana taka muguwar rawa wajen kawo nakasu a fannonin iliminmu da fasaharmu da fikirarmu da kuma wayewarmu.

Allah ya ‘yantar da mu.

Hamza Darazo ne ya rubuto wannan makala daga Bauchi. Za a iya samunsa ta 0706 329 9695.

Facebook Comments

Agriculture

Nigerian Newspapers: 10 things you need to know this Thursday morning

Published

on

Good Morning! Here is today’s summary from Nigerian Newspapers

1. Several persons were reported dead and many others injured in a clash that ensued between supporters of the Peoples Democratic Party, PDP, and the All Progressives Congress, APC, in Ogbolomabiri community in Nembe Local Government Area of Bayelsa State during a governorship rally organised by the ruling party.

The attackers, it was also learnt, opened fire on the protocol bus of the Bayelsa State Government House along the junction between Bassambiri and Ogbolomabiri communities.

2. The Executive Council of the Edo State Chapter of the All Progressives Congress (APC) has ratified the suspension of the National Chairman of the party, Comrade Adams Oshiomhole, from the party in the state.

The decision was reached at an enlarged meeting of the council and other party chieftains with the state governor, Godwin Obaseki, in Benin City, on Wednesday. At the meeting, the leaders said the suspension of Comrade Oshiomhole became necessary because the national chairman has been deploying divisive tactics to cause disharmony in the party in collaboration with the proscribed group, Edo Peoples Movement (EPM).

3. The Department of State Services (DSS) has explained why it is yet to release Omoyele Sowore, convener of RevolutionNow Movement.

The Service in a statement by its spokesman, Peter Afunanya, reiterated its avowed readiness to release Sowore once the processes are concluded, adding that the appropriate persons have still not turned up to take delivery of Sowore.

4. The Court of Appeal sitting in Calabar on Wednesday affirmed the victory of Governor Udom Emmanuel of the PDP in the March 9 gubernatorial elections in Akwa Ibom State. The Appeal was filed against the judgement of the tribunal delivered on September 5, 2019 at Uyo, which dismissed Mr Ekere’s petition for wanting in merit. Delivering judgement in the Appeal filed by Mr Nsima Ekere, the Governorship Candidate of the All Progressives Congress (APC) challenging the re-election of His Excellency, Mr Udom Emmanuel in the March 9, 2019 Gubernatorial Elections, the five-man panel gave her judgement on all the issues set out by parties in the appeal.

5. The gubernatorial candidate of the All Progressives Congress (APC) in the March 9th 2019 gubernatorial election in Oyo State, Mr. Adebayo Adelabu, has declared that he is approaching the Supreme Court in order to validate his victory at the poll.

Adelabu in a statement he personally signed on Wednesday, alleged that some agents of darkness perfected the plan to steal his mandate, this according to him, necessitated his resolve to approach the judiciary to reclaim his mandate.

6. The Senate on Wednesday approved the refund of N10.069 billion to Kogi State government ahead of governorship election slated for Saturday.

The approval followed a report by the Senate Committee Chairman on Local debts and Foreign Loans, Senator Clifford Akhimienmona Ordia.

7. The Court of Appeal sitting in Makurdi on Wednesday affirmed the election of the Speaker of Benue State Assembly, Titus Uba, representing Kyan state constituency.

Justice E. J. Ekanem, in his lead panel judgment held that the appeal brought against the speaker by the All Progressives Congress (APC)’s Gwaza Ujamatyu, lacked merit.

8. The House of Representatives has urged the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) to extend the use of compulsory National Identification Number (NIN) in the conduct of examinations till 2021.

This followed a motion moved by Rep. Zainab Gimba (APC-Borno) under Matters of Urgent Public Importance at plenary presided over by the Speaker of the House, Mr Femi Gbajabiamila on Wednesday. The House said the extension would allow more time to better sensitise prospective candidates to the NIN.

9. An Ikeja Special Offences Court on Wednesday sentenced to death, three men who kidnapped a Lagos monarch and killed his palace guard.

Justice Oluwatoyin Taiwo sentenced Duba Fureso, Reuben Anthony and Yerin Fresh, who kidnapped the Oniba of Iba, Oba Oseni Goriola, murdered his 72-year-old palace guard, Mr Sunday Okanlawon, and attempted to murder the monarch’s wife, Bosede.

10. Nigeria began their quest to be at the 2021 Africa Cup of Nations, with a narrow 2-1 win over Benin Republic on Wednesday.

The Super Eagles had to fight from a goal down, as the Squirrels opened scoring at the Godswill Akpabio International Stadium in Uyo.

Facebook Comments
Continue Reading

Education

Why a B.A. in English Language and Literature is a popular career choice

Published

on

English as a language has established itself as one of the most widely spoken languages. In the global business community, the English language remains an intricate language for communication which every professional and business person should possess its skill. As a result, a quality English language and literature degree is one which is highly respected all over the World.

A B.A in English Language and Literature will equip students with the skills of reading, and the ability to produce a wide variety of texts and proses; ranging from poetry and fiction to technical writing and advertisements. In addition, they will be able to read critically and analytically, which can help the student develop the talent for creative writing, reading, speaking and problem-solving in communication.

The primary purpose of a degree in English language and literature is to help students properly explore how English has evolved and developed over time, and how it can be adequately applied in different formal and informal communications. Also, students can apply the skills gained to a large number of careers that require strong communication skills; most especially in writing, editing and analysis.

The B.A in English Language and Literature can help you unlock a good number of career opportunities. A quality degree from a recognised institution is a valuable asset to have. This is not only because of the large number of career opportunities it could make available but because the degree could enhance personal development and also enhance continuous education.

What are the career pathways available for an English language and literature graduate?

The degree obtained in English language and literature can qualify you for various job roles across many industries. Ideally, you will be suitable to work across all industries. Primarily, you will be suitable for roles that require good use of English communication skills.

To explain, let’s explore some of the direct and indirect roles your English Language degree may be suitable for.

https://s3-eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/websites-production/unicaf/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/25094009/1.png

Direct roles for English Language graduates

Teaching

This is one of the most common job roles for English language degree holders. After bagging a degree in English language and literature, you may be required to get the necessary teaching licence or certification. After this, you will be suitable to teach in various local and international schools. However, not all schools require a teaching certification because they can employ you. After your Bachelor’s degree in English language and literature, students who have extended their study to obtaining a Master’s degree may also be suitable for lecturing jobs in the university.

Journalism, screenwriter, copywriter, writer

These are some of the primary jobs that are related to your profession as a degree holder in English language and literature. Any service that requires the skills of a good English writer, your degree can land you on the job. News agencies may require the services of a Journalist, while movie production outfits may require the services of a screenwriter. Advertising agencies may require the services of a copywriter, while a writer may be generally required across the board.

Proof-reader, editor, book publisher, librarian

You will be suitable for services that require written content reviews, publishing and storage. As an English language and literature graduate, you can work in a book publishing firm as a proof-reader, editor or even a publisher. You can also work in a library as a librarian.

Corporate Communication Manager, PR officer

You can work in any organisation as a corporate communication specialist. You may also work a public relations officer. Your services as a corporate communication manager may cover internal and external communications within the organisation. For this job role, you will be responsible for managing or overseeing the corporate communication of the organisation. As a PR officer, you will be responsible for overseeing various public relations related activities. This may include liaising with public relations agencies on behalf of your organisation.

Graduates of English language and literature may also provide other services that are not directly related to their profession. Some of the key services required from writers are original writing and review of existing written works. Therefore, various business outfits may require your services from time to time. For instance, research organisations or legal outfits may require your services from time to time. This may include organisations preparing documentations such a term of operations, business profiles, guidelines, etc.

Unicaf University BA English Language and Literature

Unicaf University BA in English Language and Literature is a premium course designed to meet international standard. The programme is structured in an innovative threefold degree programme which is comprised of English language teaching methodology, English literature and linguistics modules.

Students will study the linguistic systems underlying language, exploring in detail how the language is structured, acquired, used and taught. Also, the relationship between text, language, reader and author, society, economy, politics, culture and the individual will be critically explored.

The course modules include the linguistic components which aim to provide students with a thorough grounding of the principles underpinning the study of language and the diversity of linguistic study. Accordingly, it aims to provide students with knowledge and skills relevant to teaching English. This includes an emphasis on classroom management and the use of technology.

Unicaf University programme delivery method for B.A English Language and Literature

Unicaf University programmes are delivered mainly online, and also blending with on-campus study option. African students can study for this programme from their home countries and obtain an internationally recognised degree. A Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) is used is delivering most of these programmes. These students can access these online classes using their smartphones, tablets or personal computers. They can also attend these classes in the Unicaf study centres or campuses.

https://s3-eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/websites-production/unicaf/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/25094105/2.png

Additional Benefits Studying a Unicaf University Bachelor’s degree programmes

Unicaf University programmes come with many benefits. Let’s closely examine some of the key benefits of the programmes.

Scholarships

Unicaf offers partial scholarships to students across Africa to study for any of its programmes. Students across Africa and globally has received over USD 90 million worth of scholarships from Unicaf. Also, about 25,000 students across Africa have benefited from Unicaf scholarships.

Internationally Recognised Degree

Unicaf University offers top quality academic degrees which are recognised globally. In addition, the pan-African institution is also a member of many established academic bodies, including an academic partnership with many foreign institutions.

International Community and Alumni

The online delivery method of this programme helps to build and strengthen a student network of an online community. As a result, this will help them build a rich student community, including a strong alumni network after graduation.

More About Unicaf University and application method for B.A English Language and Literature

Unicaf University is a pan-African institution, with established campuses and learning centres in 11 African countries. The institution offers undergraduate and postgraduate degree programmes of top quality through online and blended study system.

Also worthy of mention, Unicaf University is a member of United Nations Academic Impact (UNAI), and also a member of Southern African Regional Universities Association (SARUA).

Students interested in B.A English Language and Literature at Unicaf University can visit the application page here to apply. Afterwards, a Student Adviser from Unicaf will contact the applicants to guide them on the next steps.

Josephine Uche Chikwue (Writer & Educationist)

Facebook Comments
Continue Reading

Education

ASUU reacts to death of Tam David-West

Published

on

The Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU), has described the late Prof. Tam David-West as the custodian and repository of university culture.

The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) reports that the Chairman ASUU University of Ibadan, Prof. Deji Omole said this in Ibadan on Monday while reacting to the death of Prof Tam David-West.

The union described the late don as a great struggler who believed in one Nigeria and also a supporter of the union.

Omole noted that the late don knew and articulated a clear vision of what a University ought to be.

“Tam David West was a phenomenal success academically. He was a great struggler who believed in one Nigeria.

“He had a clear vision of what the university should be. He was a great fellow of our union especially at the branch, who was always ready to assist whenever he was consulted.

“He was actually a custodian of the university tradition and culture. Repository and custodian of the university culture.

“The union will definitely miss him as he was among the last of the complete scholars,” Omole said

Facebook Comments
Continue Reading

Trending

© Copyright 2019 - AREWANG Media Limited