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Nigeria @60: ‘Mulkin soja, masu halin tsiya da na kirki’

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Daga Mahmud Jega, mai sharhi kan al’amura a Najeriya

Bayanan hoto,
Janar Yakubu Gowon ya mulki Najeriya daga shekarar 1966 zuwa 1975

Ƴan Najeriyar da ke ƙasa da shekaru 30, waɗanda kuma su ne suka fi yawa yanzu a cikin al’umma — ba su san mene ne mulkin soja ba.

A yanzu Najeriya na cikin shekararta ta 21 na ɗorarren mulkin dimokraɗiyya ba tare da sauyi ba, wanda shi ne mafi tsayi da aka taɓa gani tun bayan samun ƴancin kan ƙasar.

Jamhuriyya ta farko, wacce Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa ya yi mulki a matsayin Fira Minista sannan Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe ya kasance shugaban ƙasar, ba ta yi nisan kwana ba, shekara biyar kawai ta ɗauka, daga watan Oktoban 1960 zuwa Oktoban 1966.

Ko da kuwa mun fara lissafi ne daga shekarar 1957 kafin samun ƴancin kai, to shekara takwas kawai aka ɗiba.

Ita kuwa jamhuriyya ta biyu ta shafe shekara huɗu ne kawai da wata uku, daga Oktoban 1979 zuwa Disamban 1983, ƙarƙashin mulkin shugaban farar hula Alhaji Shehu Shagari.

Ita kuwa jamhuriyya ta uku ƙarkon kifi ta yi; duk da cewa an zaɓi gwamnonin farar hula a watan Disamban 1991 kuma sun yi shugabancin daga Janairun 1992 zuwa Nuwamban 1993, to shugaban mulkin soja Janar Ibrahim Babangida ne shugaban ƙasar.

An kuma zaɓi ƴan majalisun dokokin tarayya a watan Yunin 1992 inda ta yi ta aiki tare da gwamnatin mulkin sojan har zuwa watan Nuwamban 1993, lokacin da Janar Sani Abacha ya rusa ta.

Sai dai ba ta da wani ƙarfi sosai saboda Majalisar Ƙoli Ta Mulkin Soja ta Armed Forces Ruling Council, [AFRC] ce ke da ƙarfin iko a lokacin.

Tun daga watan Mayun 1999 kuwa, shugabannin farar hula ne suka dinga mulkar Najeriya, zuwa yanzu dai huɗu ne suka yi shugabancin. A tsarin gwamnatin tarayya, Majalisar Dokoki ce ke tsara dokoki yayin da gwamnoni da ƴan majalisar jihohi kuma ke tsara komai a jihohi 36 na ƙasar.

Bayanan hoto,
Sir Abubakar tafawa Balewa ne Fira Ministan ƙasar na farko

Shi kuwa ɓangaren shari’a yana amfani ne da Kundin Tsarin Mulkin 1999 don fayyace dokoki, inda su kuwa jam’iyyun siyasar ƙasar (waɗanda a yanzu ake da fiye da 90 da aka yi wa rijista) suke da ikon tafiyar da al’amuransu a kan kansu. A da ba haka abin yake ba.

Daga cikin shekara 60 ɗin da muka samu na ƴancin kai daga mulkin mallakar Turawan Burtaniya a shekarar 1960, Najeriya ta kasance ƙarƙashin mulkin soja tsawon shekara 29, daga cikin 29 ɗinnan, an ɗan samu wani gajeren lokaci da ƙasar ta kasance ƙarƙashin gwamnatin riƙon ƙwarya da Cif Ernest Shonekan ya jagoranta daga watan Agusta zuwa Nuwamban 1993.

Gwamnatin riƙon ƙwarya ba zaɓarta aka yi ba; tana ƙarƙashin wata doka ce da aka samar bayan saukar Janar Babangida.

Sojoji masu muƙamin Janar takwas ne suka mulki Najeriya cikin waɗannan shekaru 29 da soji suka mulki ƙasar. Sun haɗa da:

  • Manjo Janar Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi daga watan Janairu zuwa Yulin 1966
  • Janar Yakubu Gowon daga shekarar 1966 zuwa 1975
  • Janar Murtala Mohammed daga Yulin 1975 zuwa Fabrairun 1976
  • Janar Olusegun Obasanjo daga shekarar 1976 zuwa 1979
  • Manjo Janar Muhammadu Buhari daga shekarar 1983 zuwa 1985
  • Janar Ibrahim Babangida daga shekarar 1985 zuwa 1993
  • Janar Sani Abacha daga shekarar 1993 zuwa 1998
  • Sai kuma Janar Abdulsalami Abubakar daga shekarar 1998 zuwa 1999.

Ƙarfin ikon soji

Bayanan hoto,
An gina babbar gadar Third Mainland da ke Legas a lokacin mulkin Janar Babangida

Shugabannin mulkin soja ba su da wata jam’iyyar siyasa; babban ƙarfin ikonsu shi ne dakarun soji. A mafi yawan lokuta sun ƙwace iko ne ta hanyar juyin mulki.

Wasu daga cikin juyin mulkin da suka yi sun kasance waɗanda aka zubar da jini, kamar dai na watan Janairu da Yulin 1966, a lokacin da aka kashe wasu fitattun shugabannin soji da na farar hula.

Sannan juyin mulkin da aka yi a watan Fabrairun 1976 ma ya kasance wanda aka zubar da jini, inda aka kashe Janar Murtala da wasu sauran manyan jami’ai, duk da cewa juyin mulkin bai yi nasara ba.

Sauran juyin mulkin kuwa ba a zubar da jini ba, waɗanda suka haɗa da wanda aka kifar da gwamnatin Gowon a watan Yulin 1975, da wanda aka kifar da gwamnatin jamhuriyya ta biyu a watan Disamban 1983, da wanda aka kifar da gwamnatin Buhari a watan Agustan 1985, da kuma wanda aka hamɓarar da gwamnatin riƙon ƙwarya ta Shonekan a watan Nuwamban 1993.

A ƙarƙashin mulkin Gowon da Murtala da Obasanjo da Buhari, Majalisar Ƙolin Soji ta Supreme Military Council, SMC, ce babbar madafar iko a ƙasar, wacce take da ikon gudanar da aikin majalisa da na ɓangaren gudanarwa.

A ƙarƙashin IBB da Abacha da Abdulsalami kuwa, ana kiranta Majalisar Ƙolin Soji ta AFRC, amma dai kusan duk abu ɗaya ne.

Sojojin na amfani ne da dokar sojoji mai matuƙar ƙarfi; sai dai mu kunna rediyo kawai mu ji cewa shugaban ƙasa ya sanya hannu kan doka, wacce take da ƙarfin iko.

A ko yaushe idan aka samu sauyin gwamnatin soji, doka ta farko da sukan fitar ita ce wacce ake kira Constitution [Suspension and Modification] Decree, wacce take soke kundin tsarin mulkin ƙasa, wacce kuma ta dakatar da kundin tsarin mulkin dimokraɗiyya, ta soke majalisar dokoki da jam’iyyun siyasa, tare da miƙa dukkan iko ga gwamnatin mulkin soja ta tarayya.

Wasu daga cikin dokokin sojin masu tsauri ne. Har yanzu mutane da dama na tunawa da Dokar Buhari ta Decree 4 ta 1984, wacce a ƙarƙashinta ne aka ɗaure ƴan jarida kan wallafa labarin da yake na gaskiya ne.

Bayanan hoto,
A zamanin wasu shugabannin sojin kamar Janar Buhari an tanadi dokoki masu tsauri ga wasu laifuka kamar satar amsar jarrabawa

Sannan kuma akwai wata dokar soja mai tsauri ta “Miscellaneous Offences Decree” mai lamba 18 ta shekarar 1985, wacce ake hukunta masu laifuka irin su satar amsar jarrabawa da lalata wayoyin kamfanin wutar lantarki NEPA, inda ake yanke musu hukuncin zaman gidan kaso mai tsauri ko ma hukuncin kisa.

Wasu daga cikin tanade-tanaden dokar sun ƙunshi hukunce-hukunce soke ikon yin hukunci ko shari’a daga kotuna.

‘Zuma, ga zaƙi gar harbi’

A lokacin da sojoji suke mulki, mun saba ganin shugabanninsu cikin kakin soja da ya sha sitaci da guga, a maimakon gwamnoni da ministoci da shugabannin ƙasar farar hula da muke gani cikin tufafi na alfarma a yau.

Sojojin na yawan tsare gira da muzurai da gajen haƙuri amma kuma suna aikinsu yadda ya kamata. Suna son a yi komai cikin gaggawa ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba.

Sukan kori ma’aikatan gwamnati kan laifi ƙanƙani, sannan wasu gwamnonin mulkin sojan kan zane ƴan kwangila a bainar jama’a.

Amma idan za a yi wa sojojin adalci, to su ne suka yi wa Najeriya ayyuka da dama tun bayan samun ƴancin kanta. An yi wa mafi yawan manyan tituna kwalta ne a zamanin mulkin soji. Mafi yawan gadoji da filayen jiragen sama da jami’oi da asibitocin ƙwararu da tashar jiragen ruwa da matatun man fetur da manyan masana’antu duk an gina su ne a ƙarƙashin mulkin soja.

Bayanan hoto,
A zamanin mulkin soja ne aka gina mafi yawan manyan filayen jiragem saman ƙasar da sauran abubuwan more rayuwa

Wasu daga cikin tsare-tsaren da suka yi amfani ga zamantakewa da tattalin arziki kamar karatun firamare kyauta na Universal Free Primary Education [UPE] da sayar da wasu hukumomin gwamnati duk sun faru ne a ƙarƙashin mulkin soja.

A wannan zamanin muna yawan ganin sojoji a talabijin suna bayar da bayani game da ayyukan da suke yi na tsaro domin maganin ƴan ta’adda da ƴan fashi. Ba haka abin yake ba shekara 29 bayan samun ƴancin kan ƙasar.

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