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Yadda ilimin lissafi ya samo asali daga ɗakin karatu na Musulunci

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  • Daga Adrienne Bernhard
  • BBC Future
Statue of Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (ca 780-850), Persian mathematician ,in Khiva, Uzbekistan.

Bayanan hoto,
Ɓutunɓutumin masanin ilimin lissafi na Persia Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi a Uzbekistan

Gidan Hikima ya yi kama da almara: babu wani abu da ya rage game da daɗaɗɗen wajen tarihin da aka lalata a ƙarni na 13 a don haka ba za mu iya tabbatar da inda wajen yake ba ko ma yadda wajen yake.

Amma wannan babbar makarantar kimiyyar a haƙiƙanin gaskiya babbar cibiyar ilimi ce a Baghdad sannan waje ne da ilimin lissafi ya samo asali.

An kafa shi a matsayin keɓaɓɓen waje ga Khalifa Harun Al-Rashid a ƙarshen ƙarni na 18 sannan aka mayar da wurin makarantar koyar da jama’a shekara 30 baya, gidan Hikima ya janyo masana kimiyya daga ko ina a faɗin duniya zuwa Bagadaza.

Gidan Hikima a ƙarshe ya kuma zama wata cibiya ta nazarin ilimin ɗan adam da kimiyya gami da lissafi da ilimin taurari da sinadarai da magunguna da falsafa da adabi da zane-zane da kuma wasu batutuwa masu buƙatar zurfin tunani.

Bayanan hoto,
An lalata Gidan Hikima ne a mamayar da aka yi a Mongol da ke Bagadaza cikin 1258 (a cewar rubuce-rubuce da aka jefa cikin Kogin Tigris da ruwansa ya zama baƙi daga tawada).

An lalata Gidan Hikima ne a mamayar da aka yi a Mongol da ke Bagadaza cikin 1258 (a cewar rubuce-rubuce da aka jefa cikin Kogin Tigris da ruwansa ya zama baƙi daga tawada).

Amma abubuwan da aka gano a wurin sun gabatar da wani ilimi na lissafi wanda Daular Musulunci Turai da kuma duniya baki ɗaya za su runguma.

Waiwaye

“Abin da ya kamata mu damu da shi ba wai bayanan inda ko lokacin da aka kafa Gidan Hikima ba,” in ji Jim Al-Khalili, wani farfesan ilimin kimiyyar Physics a Jami’ar Surrey. “Abin sha’awa ma shi ne tarihin su kansu batutuwan kimiyyar da yadda suka bunƙasa sakamakon haka.”

Gano daɗaɗɗun abubuwa game da ilimin lissafi na buƙatar yin waiwaye. Shekaru aru-aru har zuwa ƙarni tsakanin na 15 da 16, suna ɗaya ne idan aka faɗa zai hasko ma batun lissafi a Turai: Leornado da Pisa da aka sani da Fibonacci.

An haife shi a Pisa cikin 1170, masanin lissafin ɗan Italiya ya yi karatun Firamare a Bugia, wani yanki ne na kasuwanci da ke gaɓar Barbary na Afirka.

Lokacin da yake ɗan shekara 20, Fibonacci ya yi tafiya zuwa Gabas ta Tsakiya. A lokacin da ya dawo Italiya, Fibonacci ya buga aikinsa na farko mai suna Liber Abbaci wanda ke bayyana tsarin lambobi na Hindu da Larabci.

Bayanan hoto,
Lokacin da yake ɗan shekara 20, Fibonacci ya yi tafiya zuwa Gabas ta Tsakiya

Lokacin da littafin Liber Abbaci ya fara bayyana cikin 1202, mutane kaɗan ne suka san tsarin lambobin na Hindu da LarabciƳan kasuwar Turai da masana a lokacin sun yi riƙo ne da lambobin Roma wanda ya sa tarawa da rabewa suka zamo abu mai matuƙar wahala.

Littafin Fibonacci ya bayyana yadda ake lissafi – dabarun da za a yi amfani da su wajen warware matsalolin canjin kuɗi da kuɗin ruwa da fitar da riba.

“Wadanda suka nemi sanin yadda ake ƙirge, dole ne su san yadda za su yi amfani da hannunsu,” Fibonacci ya rubuta a babin farko na littafinsa, abin da ke nuni da lambobin da yara ke koya yanzu a makaranta.

Ƙwazon haziki Fibonacci ba wai kawai ya irin fasaharsa ba ce a matsayinsa na masanin lissafi, ya kuma fahimci irin fa’idodin da yake da shi ga masana kimiyya Musulmi tsawon ƙarni: tsarin ƙirgensu.

Fibonacci ya dogara ne kan tsarin algorithm na masananin ilimin lissafi a ƙarni na 9 Al-Khwarizmi. Saboda irin abubuwan da ya gano a wannan fanni, ake bayyana Al-Khwarizmi a matsayin uban algebra – kalmar da a Larabci ake kira al-jabr, “maido da sassan da suka ɓalle” – sannan a 821, aka naɗa shi masanin tauraron ɗan adam kuma shugaban masu kula da Gidan Hikima.

Bayanan hoto,
Ana kallon Al-Khwarizmi a matsayin uban algebra

Littafin Al-Khwarizmi ne ya gabatar da duniyar Musulmi ga tsarin lissafi.” kamar yadda Al-Khalili ya yi bayani. “Sauran kamar Leornado da Pisa, sun taimaka wajen yaɗa shi ga sassan Turai.”

Tasirin Fibonacci kan ilimin lissafi na zamani ya zama wani abin gado ne ga Al-Khwarizmi don haka maza biyu da suka rabu kusan ƙarni huɗu sun sake haɗuwa a wani daɗaɗɗen ɗakin karatu.

Wataƙila saboda abin da aka sani game da Gidan Hikimar ba shi da yawa, masana tarihi a wasu lokutan na ƙoƙarin kambama maƙasudinsa, lamarin da ke bai wa gidan wani matsayi na almara.

“Wasu na jayayya cewa Gidan Hikimar bai kasance kamar yadda yake a idanun mutane da dama ba,” in ji Al-Khalili. “Amma alaƙarsa da mutane kamar Al-Khwarizmi da irin ayyukan da ya yi a lissafi da sauran fannonin lissafi a waje na babbar hujja ce cewa Gidan Hikima ya fi kusa da makaranta ba wai matattarar litattafan da aka fassara ba.”

Masana da masu fassara a daƙin karatun sun yi kasada don tabbatar da cewa jama’a sun samu damar karanta litattafansu.

“Gidan Hikima na da mahimmanci sosai – masana Larabawa da suka fassara ra’ayoyin Girka zuwa harshensu – da muka kafa tubalin fahimtar ilimin lissafi,” in ji June Barrow Green, farfesa a fannin lissafi a jami’ar karatu daga gida da ke Burtaniya.

Tun kafin tsarin lissafi na yanzu, tsarin lambobin da ke jikin kwamfutoci kafin tsarin lissafi na Roma, mutane suna amfani da tsarin tarawa wajen yin lissafi.

Duk da a yanzu za mu iya kallon waɗan nan a matsayin daɗaɗɗu, banbanta lambobi zai iya koya mana abubuwa da dama da kuma tarihi da al’adun da suka samo asali.

Suna sake fahimtar da mu yadda lambobi ke aiki. Suna nuna cewa “tsarin yamma ba shi kaɗai bane tsari,” in ji Barrow-Green. “Akwai daraja sosai game da fahimtar tsarin lissafi daban-daban.”

A lokacin da wata tsohuwar ƴar kasuwa ta nemi ya rubuta “tumaki biyu”, misali, ta kan iya zana hoton tumaki biyu jikin yumɓu. Amma hakan zai yi wahala idan za ta rubuta “tumaki 20”.

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