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[BBC Hausa]: Elon Musk: Sirruka shida na arziƙin mai kuɗin duniya daga bakinsa

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  • Daga Justin Rowlatt
  • BBC News
Bayanan hoto,
Wadanne sirruka ne ke tattare da nasarar hada-hadar kasuwancin hamshakin attajiri Elon Musk?

Ba da dadewa ba Elon Musk ya zama hamshakin attajirin duniya, inda ya zarta mai kamfanin Amazon Jeff Bezos.

Mutumin da ya kafa kamfanin The Tesla and SpaceX an ƙimanta yawan dukiyarsa kan kuɗi kimanin Dala biliyan 185 (Fam biliyan 136) bayan da aka samu hannayen jari a kamfanin motar lantarki sun yi matukar karuwa.

Shin mene ne sirrin nasararsa? Shekaru kadan da suka wuce na shafe sa’a guda ina tattaunawa da shi.

Domin bikin murnar gagarumar nasarar da ya samu, sai muka cimma matsayar tattaunawa da shi, kuma mu bayyana muku.

Don haka ga dabarun kai ga gacin nasarar Elon Musk a harkar kasuwanci.

1. Ba lamari ne da ya shafi kudi ba

Wannan al’amari ne da ya dogara kacokan game da dabi’ar Elon Musk wajen tunkarar harkokin kasuwanci.

Lokacin da na tattauna da shi cikin shekarar 2014 ya ce bai san yawan dukiyarsa ba.

“Ba wai lamarin na nuni da cewa a tara dimbin kudi cukus a wani wuri ba ne,” in ji shi. “gaskiyar lamari kawai ina da wani kaso na yawan hannayen jari a kamfanonin Tesla da SpaceX da SolarCity, sai dai kuma kasuwa ta ba su kimar daraja daukacin wadannan hannayen jari.”

Bayanan hoto,
Fasalin motar A Tesla Model X 90D da aka baje kolinta a wajen hada-hadar ciniki a birnin Brussels

Ba ya kyarar wani abu game da fafutikar tara dukiya ‘matukar dai ana gudanar da hada-hadar kan yadda ta dace da kyakkyawar manufa,” amma a cewarsa, ba wannan ne abin da ya zaburar da shi ba. Tabbas irin wannan tsari yana da tasiri a aikace.

Hakikanin abin da ya zaburar da Robert Doney Jr a rayuwa, shi ne, yadda aka kwatanta Tony Stark mai sarrafa mutum-mutumin ƙarafa mai motsi da ya shahara da kimar dukiyar da ta kai Dala biliyan 10 a lokacin da muka tattauna da shi a shekarar 2014.

Kamfaninsa na ƙera mota mai aiki da makamashin lantarki (electric car), Tesla, ya yi kyakkyawar hada-hadar kasuwanci.

Hannayen jarinsa sun rika bunkasa a tsawon shekaru, har kimar darajarsu ta zarta Dala biliyan 700.

Bisa wannan dalili za ka/ki iya sayen Hodi (Ford) da General Motors da BMW da Volkswagen (Basuwaja – mota mai kirar kunkuru) da Fiat Chrysler, har kuma a samu ragowar kudin da za a iya sayen mota kirar Ferari.

Bayanan hoto,
Robert Downey Jr an ce ya dubi Musk ne a matsayin wanda ya zaburar da shi wajen kera mutum-mutumin karfe

Sai dai Musk, mutumin da ya cika shekaru 50 cikin wannan shekarar, bai yi tsammanin kai wa karshen rayuwarsa tare da dimbin arziki ba.

A cewarsa mafi yawan kudinsa za a sarayar da su ne wajen yin gini a duniyar Mars, kuma ka da a yi mamakin ganin cewa wannan aiki ya laƙume daukacin dukiyarsa.

A hakikanin gaskiya, Bill Gates, ta yiwu ya kai karshen rayuwarsa da tarin biliyoyin kudi a asusun ajiyarsa na banki a matsayin gazawa, saboda bai yi kyakkyawan amfani da kudin ba.

2. Yi fafutikar abin da ka damfaru da sonsa

Yin sansani a duniyar Mars, wani al’amari ne da Elon Musk ke da tabbacin cewa, shi ne, jigon nasara.

“Kana/kina son ganin kyautatuwar al’amura nan gaba,” kamar yadda ya fada mini. “Kana bukatar abubuwa masu kayatarwa da ke kyautata halin rayuwa.”

Dubi SpaceX. Ya fada mini cewa ya kafa kamfanin ne saboda takaicin shirin sararin samaniyar Amurka bai kasance tattare da zakuwar cimma burace-burace masu matukar yawa ba.

“Na dade da zakuwar ganin fafutikarmu ta zarta duniya, har mu kai ga tsugunnar da mutum a duniyar Mars, tare da yin sansani a duniyar wata, kuma ka sani kamata ya yi mu rika yin tafiye-tafiye (kewayen sararin samiya) kan falakin duniyoyi akai-akai,” in ji shi.

Yayin da wannan al’amari bai kasance ba, sai ya bullo da wata dabara mai manufar “Tafiya Dausayin duniyar Mars – Mars Oasis Mission,” wanda ke nufin tura rumfar shuka tsirrai zuwa sararin jar duniya.

Manufar yin hakan shi ne, cusa wa mutane sha’awar sararin samaniya, sannan a ja ra’ayin Gwamnatin Amurka ta kara kasafin kudin Hukumar sararin samaniyar kasar ta NASA.

Daidai lokacin da yake yunƙurin tashi sama sai ya fahimci matsalar ba ta rashin ƙwarin guiwa ba ce, sai dai rashin hanya” – fasahar kere-keren sararin samaniya na da matukar tsadar aiwatarwa fiye da yadda ake zato.

Et voila! An samar da hada-hadar kasuwancin rokar sararin samaniya mafi arha.

Bayanan hoto,
Rokar SpaceX da aka cillata don gwaji a farfajiyar kamfanin da ke Boca Chica, a Jihar Texas cikin Disamba.

Kuma shi ne abu mafi muhimmanci, domin farko ba muradin tara kudi ba ne, sai dai kawai a kai mutum ya sauka a duniyar Mars.

Musk ya bayyana mini cewa, yana daukar kansa a matsayin injiya fiye da mai zuba jari, sannan ya ce abin da yake tashi da shi tun da safe, shi ne hankoron warware matsalolin da ke tattare da fasahar aiwatar da aiki.

Wannan ne ya fi komai, fiye da Dalolin da ke makare a banki, don shi ne ma’aunin kimar ci gaba.

Ya san cewa duk wani kalubale da harkar kasuwancinsa ya shawo kanta, to za ta taimaka wa kowane mutumin da ya samu kansa tattare da irin wannan kalubalen da ya ke ta kokarin shawo kansa – haka dai lamarin zai ci gaba har abada.

Wannan ne dalilin da ya sanya, kafin haduwarmu ba da dadewa ba, wannan mai masana’antu ya sanar da cewa ya yi shirin baje fasahar kirkirar Tesla a fili karara don zaburar da kere-keren ababen hawa masu aiki da makamashin lantarki a fadin duniya.

3. Ka da a ji tsoron fadada tunani –

Daya daga cikin abubuwan ban mamaki game da harkokin kasuwancin Elon Musk shi ne, yadda ake gudanar da su gaba-gadi ba tare da fargaba ba.

Yana son kawo sauyi a masana’antar kera mota, ya mamaye duniyar Mars da kera jirgin kasa mai gudun gaske ta cikin kwarkwaron mazurari, tare da tattaro kirkirar basira (AI) a cusa cikin kwakwalwar dan Adam da juya akalar makamashin rana a masana’antun sarrafa batura.

Akwai bagire guda da al’amuran ke lilo a kai. Daukacin ayyukansa mafarkai ne da ake hankoron tabbatar da su, wanda ake iya ganin fasalinsu a mujallar kananan yara da aka rika wallafawa cikin shekarun 1980.

A dauka kamar haka, wannan kasuwancin mazurarinsa na karkashin kasa ana kiransa da Kamfanin Boring.

Musk ba ya boye cewa littattafai da fina-finai tun yana yaro karami suka cusa masa irin wannan sha’awar lokacin da yake karami a kasar Afirka ta Kudu.

Bayanan hoto,
Sabon kamfanin Tesla da ake ginawa a birnin Shangai na kasar Sin cikin shekarar 2019.

Wannan ne dai rukunin hada-hadar kasuwanci na uku – ba ja da baya.

Yana da yakinin cewa karancin buri aka cusa wa tsarin kamfanoni.

Kamfanoni da dama “masu fafutikar sauyin ci gaba ne mataki-maki”, a cewarsa.

“Idan ka kasance shugaban babban kamfani, kuma kana da manufar kai ga gacin bunkasa a hankali, lamarin zai dauki tsawon lokaci fiye da yadda kake tsammani, kuma ba lallai a samu kyakkyawar nasara ba, saboda haka babu wanda zai zargeka,” kamar yadda ya fada mini.

Za ka iya cewa ba laifina ba ne, laifin masu samar da kaya ne.

Idan kana da kwarin guiwa, to sai ka zabura wajen kai wa ga gacin samun nasarar karin ci gaba, kuma lamarin ya ki aiki, tabbas za a koreka (daga aiki), a cewarsa.

Ya ce wannan ne dalilin da ya sanya mafi yawan kamfanoni suka himmatu kan ƙarin ƙwazo kadan-kadan don inganta irin kayayyakin da suke samarwa/kerawa maimakon su bugi kirji wajen samar/kera wasu sababbi.

Bayanan bidiyo,
Rukunin ma’aikatan Musk da ke cusa matattarar bayanai ta chip a kwakwalwar alade don kulla alaka da na’ura.

Don haka, a shawararsa ka tabbatar kana aikin kan abin da ya yi wa lakabi da “al’amuran da za su kasance masu matukar tasiri.”

Al’amura biyu ne ke da matukar tasirin a wajen Musk na kashin kansa.

Na farko, yana hankoron ganin cikin gaugawa an daina amfani da makamashin man fetur.

A nan mai masana’antun na nuni da cewa, kan wannan lamari dai: “Muna yin haka mai zurfi a rijiyoyin iskar gas da wuraren hakar fetur wadanda ba su da tabbas, tun tsawon zamani daɗaɗɗe na Cambrian era, wato kimanin shekaru miliyan 55 da dubu 600.

Idan a da an samu nasara, to lokacin da cukurkudaddun halittu aka tsaftace su, don haka ne dole a bijiro da tambaya kan cewa ko yin hakan ya dace.”

Na biyu, yana son tabbatar da ganin rayuwar mutane ta tsawaita bayan (dogon zamani) bayan dan Adam ya mamaye duniyar Mars kuma “rayuwa ta kasance za a iya gudanar da ita a duniyoyi da yawa).”

4. A shirya tunkarar hadari/asara

Wannan abu ne guda da yake a bayyane karara –

Dole ka/ki shige cikin fafutikarka don yin aiki mai kyau, amma Elon Musk ya tunkari dimbin hadurran iya ririta asara fiye da mutane da dama.

A cikin shekarar 2002 sai da ya sayar da daukacin hannayen jarinsa a kamfanoninsa na farko guda biyu, wato mai hada-hadar shafukan intanet na Zip2 da shafin hada-hadar biyan kudi na Paypal.

Lokacin da ya cika shekaru 30 ya mallaki Dala miliyan 200 a asusun ajiyar banki.

Ya ce nufinsa shi ne ya zuba rabin dukiyar a hada-hadar harkokin kasuwanci, rabin kuwa ya ajiye shi.

Sai dai al’amarin bai kasance kamar hakan ba. Lokacin da na hadu da shi, yana kokarin fitowa daga kangin yanayin kuncin rayuwar harkokin kasuwanci.

Sababbin kamfanoninsa sun fuskancin dimbin matsaloli.

Kayan da kamfanin SpaceX ya kaddamar guda uku duk ba su kai ga cin nasara ba, sannan Tesla ya ci karo da dimbin kalubalen kere-kere, tare da tsarin samar da kaya da al’amuran da suka jibinci fasalin zayyanar tsarin ayyuka.

Bayanan hoto,
Dimbin turakun cajin zukar makamashin lantarki na ababen hawa a cibiyoyin da ke birni.

Daga bisani matsalar hada-hadar kudi ta kawo tarnaki.

Musk ya ce ya fuskanci mawuyacin hali na rashin zabi. “Ko dai in adana kudin, sai kamfanonin su durkushe, ko kuma in zuba musu jari na daga abin da ya rage mini, watakila akwai yiwuwar samun damar kyakkyawan yanayi.

A wani bangare bashi ya dabaibaye shi, ta yadda dole ya ranto kudi daga abokansa, don biyan bukatun rayuwarsa, a yadda ya fada mini.

Shin ko dabaibayin bashin durkushewa ya firgita shi?

Ya ce, a’a: “Ƴaƴana ta yiwu su halarci wata makarantar gwamnati. Ina nufin wannan babban al’amari ne, ni ma makarantar gwmanati na halarta.”

5. Yin biris da masu sukar lamiri

Abin da ya fi kada shi (ka da masa gaba), shi ne, ya bayyana karara a shekarar 2014 lokacin yana jin takaici – daukacin masana da masu sharhi kan al’amura suna ta sha’awar bin kadin mawuyacin halin da ya samu kansa a ciki.

“Yancin nuna farin ciki da annashuwa kan musifar da ta samu mutum na da matukar ban mamaki,” in ji Musk.

Na fahimci cewa ta yiwu mutane na son ganin gazawarsa saboda ganin kamar akwai jiji da kai da dagawa tattare da burinsa.

Ya yi watsi da hakan. Ina jin cewa zan kasance mai jiji da kai matukar na san cewa lallai sai mun yi aikin da ke gabanmu, sabanin hankoron yin aikin, don haka muke yin komai da kyau iya iyawarmu.”

Bayanan bidiyo,
Elon Musk ne mutumin da ya yi tasirin juya akalar tunanin Robert Downey ya kera mutum-mutumin karfe.

Wannan ya kawo mu ga wata nasarar kasuwancin Musk – wato ka da a saurari masu sukar lamairin mutum.

Ya fada mini cewa, bai taba samun tabbacin tunanin cewa SpaceX ko Tesla za su samar da kudi ba – kuma a hakikanin gaskiya babu ma wanda ya yi tunanin hakan.

Amma sai ya yi watsi da masu mummunar mahanga, ya tunkari aikinsa kaitsaye gaba-gadi.

Mene ne dalili? A tuna, wannan mutumin yana yanke hukuncin samun nasara ne bisa la’akari da muhimmancin matsalolin da ake kokarin shawo kansu, amma ba wai kudi da ya samu ba.

Yi tunanin yadda za ka samu ‘yantuwa daga kangi.

Ba ya damuwa da yi masa kallon wawa saboda irin kudin da yake kasadar zubawa ba su dawo ba, abin da kawai ya dame shi shi ne fafutikar juya akalar muhimman dabarun aiwatar da aiki.

Al’amarin na sanyawa a cimma matsaya da za ta saukaka ayyuka, saboda yana iya fuskantar lamarin kacokan dangane da hakikanin abin da yake da tabbaci a kai.

Kuma manuniya ta nuna harkar kasuwancin na son abin da yake yi.

A Oktobar, Bankin zuba jari a Amurka na Morgan Stanley ya kimanta darajar SpaceX kan kudi Dala biliyan 100.

Kamafanin ya bunkasa hada-hadar tattalin arzikin jiragen sararin samaniya, amma abin da yake sanya wa Musk tinkahon farin cikin, shi ne yadda kamfanin ya inganta shirin hada-hadar sararin samaniyar kasar Amurka.

A bara matukan rokar Dragon sun tashi da ‘yan sama jannati shida zuwa babbar tashar sararin samaniyar duniya, wanda ya kasance irinsa na farko daga kasar Amurka tun bayan da aka dakatar da tashin jiragen da ke kai-kawo a sararin samaniya cikin shekarar 2011.

Bin wannan ka’ida, tattare da samun sa’a, za ka iya zama hamshakin attajiri kuma shahararre. Daga nan sai ka bayyana a fili karara.

Elon Musk mutum ne da ya shahara da kwazon aiki – har tutiya yake da kwazon aiki a tsawon sa’o’i 120 na makonni domin tabbatar da ayyukan kera Tesla kirar Model3 na tafiya daidai, amma tun daga lokacin da muka hadu da shi, alamu suka nuna yana jin dadi a kashin kansa.

Bayanan bidiyo,
Mr Musk na cike da farin ciki game da yawan gwaje-gwajen da ya samu nasarar aiwatarwa

Ya haifar da rudani ta hanyar bata sunan kararrakin kotuna (shari’o’i) a zugar haramtacciyar taba (wiwi) da kurari a kafafen sada zumuntar shafukan intanet.

A shekarar 2018 ya shiga rikici da Hukumar daidaita hada-hadar kudi ta Amurka, yayin da ya aike da sakon twita cewa yana shirin mayar da aikin Tesla a killace, kuma bayan da cutar COVID-19 ta tursasa Tesla ta rufe masana’antarta da ke gabar ruwan San Francisco, sai ya yi ta babatun adawa da dakatar da kai-kawon mutane.

Ya yi wa ƙwayar cutar virus da ta zama ruwan dare game duniya lakabin “kurma” a shafin Twitter, sannan ya kwatanta umarnin zaman gida a matsayin “shiga kurkukun dole,” inda ya yi nuni da cewa “‘Yan kama-karya” ne tare da keta haddin hakkokin da ke kunshe a kundin tsarin mulki.

A lokacin bazarar ya bayana aniyarsa ta sayar da kaddarorin da suke mallkin kansa ne, domin a cewarsa “nauyi ne da ka iya danne ka ka yi kasa.”

Kwanaki kadan daga bisani ya hau shafinsa na twiter ya bayyana wa duniya sabuwar kirkirasa, wadda ya yi wa lakabi da X Æ A-12 Musk.

Duk da haka dabi’arsa ta kasance ba a iya hasashen inda ya sa gaba, babu wata alama da ta nuna ta yi wa harkokin kasuwancinsa wata illa, kuma wannan mai kakkafa masana’anta na cike da dimbin buri a kodayaushe.

Cikin watan Satumba, Musk ya yi ikirarin cewa Tesla za ta samar da wata mota “mai daukar hankali” a kan kudi Dala dubu 25 nan da shekara uku, sannan ya ce daukacin motocin kamfanin za su kasance masu sarrafa/tuka kansu.

A karshen wannan shekarar aka samu hakikanin fashewar al’amura cikin Disamba, yayin da SpaceX ya kaddamar da tauraron jirginsa, wanda yake da kwarin guiwar ganin saukar mutane a sararin samaniyar duniyar Mars.

Hamshakiyar roka ta fado wajen sauka mintuna shida da dagawarta.

Elon Musk ya yabi gwajin da aka yi a matsayin “mai matukar mamaki” kai wa ga gacin nasara.

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